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Disaster Mitigation
in Asia

31 January 2008
Issue No. 55

The Program for Hydro-Meteorological Disaster Mitigation in Secondary Cities in Asia (PROMISE), funded by USAID/OFDA, commenced from October 2005. Through consultations with a number of ADPC partners, five project countries have been selected – Bangladesh, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Vietnam – for implementing demonstration projects in each country in a highly vulnerable city with recent history of hydro-meteorological disasters. Other components of the program consist of capacity building, risk management advocacy, networking and dissemination initiatives in the selected countries. The objective of the program is to contribute towards reduction of vulnerability of urban communities through enhanced preparedness and mitigation of hydro-meteorological disasters in South and Southeast Asia. The main activities from January to March 2008 are: implementing the small-scale mitigation projects for each city, preparing for city-level workshops on disaster mitigation, promoting school safety, planning for the conduct of national courses, and development of case study material.

PROGRAM ACTIVITIES for January and February 2008:

  • BANGLADESH – BDPC is continuing to implement the small-scale disaster mitigation projects in the wards under PROMISE Bangladesh. PROMISE-BD conducted a school simulation on January 22 to promote disaster preparedness initiatives. The script mainly focused on various disaster risk management issues, including pre-disaster preparedness activities, actions to be taken in emergency situation, rescue and evacuation, and shelter management. Around 500 college students, high school students, and teachers, about 200 community members, and other stakeholders of Ward 37 participated in the simulation. PROMISE-BD also met the school disaster management committee to help them develop a school disaster management plan. In other activities, PROMISE-BD is busy preparing for the city-level workshop, in collaboration with the Chittagong City Corporation (CCC). For capacity-building in disaster mitigation, BDPC is developing a Memorandum of Understanding with the National Institute for Local Governance to develop disaster management training courses and include the same within their existing training curricula. BDPC and the Red Cross will hold a 3-day community-based emergency response course (C-BERC) on February 3 to 5. Red Cross will send 4 local facilitators for this training. Participants include 20 change agents (CAs), school teachers from Chittagong, and representatives from CCC. Activities for next month include the conduct of the city workshop, the C-BERC, more school disaster simulations, and monitoring the implementation of the small-scale disaster mitigation projects.

  • PAKISTAN – AKPBS,P had signed terms of partnership with communities for the small-scale disaster mitigation projects and is now monitoring the projects. For the project on raising streets and improving drainage lines in Aliabad, the activities already carried out were adding earth to streets to raise their level, installing covered drains, and mobilizing communities for street maintenance. For the project on reducing physical vulnerability through developing flood mitigation infrastructure in Ghera Sudhar community, the main activities carried out under the project were filling in the streets of Ghera Hindu Basti with earth, and improving sanitation by installing communal latrines. Both projects are expected to be completed by March 2008.
    The team organized a health and hygiene workshop in Maheshwari Colony on January 17; 28 females participated. The resource persons highlighted the importance of different components of hygiene. PROMISE-Pakistan organized an orientation program for school children in Government High School, GOR Colony, Hyderabad; 32 students participated in the event. At the end of session, the children were able to understand basic causes of the disasters and their effects of human lives and livelihoods. The resource persons involved the children in role playing about the causes of diseases.
    PROMISE-Pakistan organized an advocacy and mobilization seminar in Hyderabad on January 23, in collaboration with SAFWCO, the local NGO partner. The purpose of the workshop was to orient stakeholders about: (1) the mandate of the District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA); (2) the exposure level of different localities of city Hyderabad against different hazards; and (3) share a vulnerability analysis of various social groups, properties and environmental resources. More than 200 people from the District participated in the seminar. District Deputy Nazim, Mr. Zafar Rajput was the Chief Guest. Representatives from government, civil society organizations and members of the District Disaster Management Authority participated in the event. Other speakers were: Mr. Suleman G Abro, CEO, SAFWCO; Mr. Shalim Kamran Dost from UNDP; Mr. Ghulam Mustafa Nangraj from Agricultural Extension Department; Ms. Farzana Panhwar, Agricultural Scientist; and Mr. Masood A. Mahesar, PROMISE Country Coordinator.
    A meeting with District Deputy Nazim Mr. Rajput, who is also the convenor of the District Assembly Hyderabad, was held on January 25 to share the progress of PROMISE-Pakistan, as well as offering services to the DDMA. The concept of a technical working group for the city government was floated. The District representative appreciated the efforts being taken for the city, and it was decided to convene a follow up meeting with the DDMA on February 6 to further explore areas of cooperation and finalize the formation of a technical working group.

  • PHILIPPINES – CDP and the TWG organized a Climate Change Orientation on January 10, to make the city’s mitigation and preparedness plans more sustainable. The speakers gave comprehensive input on the risk of climate change specifically to the agricultural sectors, as well as useful tips for preparedness and mitigation for climate adaptation. The resource persons were: Ms. Lourdes Tibig, Chief, Climate and Data Section, Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA); Mr. Cesar Manuel Cabansag Jr., Chief, Planning and Management Division, Region 1 office, Department of the Environment and Natural Resources; and Mr. Joseph Anthony Quinto, Region 1 office, Department of Agriculture. Participants were the Technical Working Group (TWG) members of Dagupan City Government, the newly-elected Barangay Captains of the pilot barangays of PROMISE-Philippines, and Mayor Alipio Fernandez. After the climate change orientation, Ms. Luneta and Ms. Emma Molina presented the concept and highlights of PROMISE Philippines. This was immediately followed by an assessment of the project by all present, and a presentation of the continuing work done by the barangays.
    The mainstreaming disaster risk reduction (DRR) in local governance project in the Philippines is continuing. After the workshop last December 20, the Department of the Interior and Local Government held a follow up activity validating the integration of the DRM into the Comprehensive Development Plan on January 10 to 11. Ms. Lorna Victoria, one of the directors of the Center for Disaster Preparedness (CDP), attended and actively participated in the workshop. The participants agreed that the integration of DRM should be in all steps of the local comprehensive development planning process at the city and municipal level. Dagupan City is being used as an example in some sections of the Guide being developed under the project. Ongoing harmonization of planning processes of different national planning agencies will include DRR. DILG will be convening the First National Conference on Mainstreaming DRR in Local Governance this coming March 4 to 6.
    Oxfam Hong Kong had a study tour to Dagupan on January 17 to 18. The participants were 16 staff of OXFAM Hong Kong staff in the region (East Timor, Vietnam, China and Hong Kong) and staff from CDP. The purpose of the study visit was to look at the CBDRM in Dagupan and their current Climate Change Adaptation. The following were the highlights of the study tour: welcome by Councilor Farah Decano, the Acting Vice Mayor (the proponent of the City Ordinance 1918-2007 establishing the EOC); orientation on PROMISE-Philippines by Mr. Ryan Ravanzo, the City Information Officer; presentation by each of the eight barangays on various aspects of community-based disaster risk management; dialogue with Mayor Fernandez; a river tour; and open forum. The following table show the barangays’ specific presentations:

    Barangay

    Activity

    Mangin

    Early Warning System, Plan and Drill

    Salisay

    Environment-friendly Transport: ”The Kalesa”

    Tebeng 

    Indigenous Early Warning Tool: “The Kalungkong”

    Lasip Chico

    Networking Strategies

    Bacayao Norte

    Adoptive and Mitigation Approaches of Bangus Fishponds and the Land Use Plan of Dagupan City

    Bacayao Sur

    Role playing on the Roles of the BDCC before, during and after a disaster

    Pogo Grande

    Water Search-and-Rescue; Waste segregation process

    Lasip Grande

    Skills in First Aid

    PROMISE-Philippines participated in several networking activities. Ms Luneta presented the Oxfam Case Study on CBDRM highlighting the experience of Barangay Mangin at the January 25 Media Dialogue “Engaging Media in Disaster Risk Reduction”. Ms. Luneta shared the PROMISE-Philippines experience during an orientation on January 13 for Baguio communities under ADPC’s RECLAIM Project. Finally, on behalf of the TWG, Ms. Lorna P. Victoria wrote a case study “Combining Indigenous and Scientific Knowledge in Dagupan City Flood Warning System” for a regional publication, Indigenous Practices and Lessons Learned for DRR. It will be published by ISDR Asia Pacific and Kyoto University in May 2008.
    Activities for next month include: a study tour of the TWG and CDCC to Pampanga and Manila; Production of a video documentary on Barangay Mangin by Oxfam GB; implementation of the small-scale disaster mitigation projects.

  • SRI-LANKA – Sarvodaya monitored the work on the newly-identified small-scale disaster mitigation projects: (1) School Disaster Preparedness Project, and (2) Water Resource Management & Solid Waste Disposal for Flood Mitigation. Sarvodaya visited the schools and assessed which are the most vulnerable to disasters. Small meetings were held to create awareness on the project activities, and the first workshop for the Solid Waste Disposal System project was organized this month for the villagers in Kudawadduwa GN division. Sarvodaya drafted an agreement to work with SEEDS for the Micro-credit Scheme for Vulnerable Personnel for Disasters. They have completed the first round of selection of loan applicants from among the PROMISE projects; ten persons were selected to obtain the loans. SOP development for the EOC Kalutara was completed. Discussions will be held with officers of DMC Kalutara on the developed SOP during next two weeks. Activities for next month include the completion of the flood model by Dr. Nandalal, continuation of the small-scale disaster mitigation projects, initiate the micro-credit program, and begin installing flood markers in Kalu river.
     

  • VIETNAM – CECI revised the guidelines, translated it into Vietnamese and sent it to city authority for their comments. It was also sent to ADPC for comments. PROMISE-Vietnam is developing picture books for awareness raising among school children. The entries to the drawing competition on Disaster Preparedness and Living Environment Protection for primary school pupils will be used as illustrations.
    After several revisions, the designs and cost estimates of the four approved small-scale structural mitigation projects were finalized and approved by the district authority. The preparations for construction were completed this month. Agreements were signed between PROMISE Vietnam, the people’s committee (PC) in the concerned wards, and the district steering committee for commitments on investment, local contribution and definition of responsibilities. Competent local builders were selected and approved. Project supervision boards were set up including participation of ward authorities, district engineers, ward engineers, Community Development Groups and engineering consultant of PROMISE Vietnam. A training programme was scheduled to these Community Development Groups on how to supervise the works. Construction has already started and is expected to finish in mid March 2008.
    A lot of work has begun for the two small-scale non-structural mitigation projects. One project, on community awareness raising on disaster preparedness and safe building practices, was incorporated into the Training and Public Awareness components of PROMISE-Vietnam. In this project, training classes on Disaster Preparedness and Building Practices were held in six wards of Cam Le district. The 14 Change Agents trained on CBDRM and dissemination skills under the PROMISE project took part in the delivery of these training classes. More than 200 people from the grassroot level and some section chiefs participated in seven training classes; 85 participants are female. The two – day training classes disseminated information on risk identification and assessment, development of disaster preparedness plan and good building practices towards a safer community.
    The second project is on Improving Emergency Response of Cam Le District. The project approach is to provide equipment and training to first responders of district and wards. Equipment such as generators, electric saws, wireless loudspeakers and first aid kits were turned over to the response teams by end of January. PROMISE Vietnam in collaboration with the Red Cross Association of Danang City conducted a capacity assessment to select trainers, with the final aim to create a local resource on emergency response techniques. A three-day TOT (training of trainers) was held for nine selected people from five wards of Cam Le district. These trainers would participate in delivering 17 training classes to first responders at community level. The updated training manual from ADPC on Community-Based Emergency Response Course will be used.
    Next month’s activities include: in-house workshop for finalization of guidelines on urban planning and safer construction techniques and distribution; continued implementation of six community based disaster mitigation subprojects; implementation of awareness raising campaign; and finalization of picture books for primary pupils under school programme.

 A. From the Region

(1) Two-week frost in Jordan
(based on a report from IRIN)

A two-week-long frost killed crops over a 5,000 km2 area this January.  Initial results showed many farmers in southern regions had lost 50 to 80 per cent of their products.  The crops affected by the frost include bananas, zucchinis, potatoes, beans and peppers.  The government is developing a compensation scheme for the farmers, and is conducting an awareness campaign on frost disaster mitigation.  The impact of the unusually heavy frost has been exacerbated by desertification, caused in part by the lifting of subsidies on fodder and the subsequent overgrazing.  The disappearance of surface water of the Dead Sea, the Jordan and Yarmouk rivers, as well as the Azraq basin, also meant a reduction of an important buffer against extreme cold.  Officials from Jordan's meteorological department said frost appeared this year two months earlier than usual, and that the length was also unusual. 

(2) Bird flu spreading in Bangladesh, India and Myanmar
(based on reports from IRIN, WHO and Reuters)

On January 22, the Department of Livestock confirmed the presence of the H5N1 virus in 84 poultry farms across Bangladesh.  Since March 2007 when the first bird flu case was reported, more than 360,000 chickens have been culled at 93 poultry farms in 48 sub-districts of 29 districts and six metropolitan cities across the country.  FAO reported that 21 out of 64 districts have H5NI and the numbers may increase.  FAO also warned that the disease appeared to be endemic in the country and that surveillance and control campaigns have not interrupted the virus's transmission between provinces.  The government has adopted several measures to control the spread of the disease, which so far has not infected humans.  Spraying with anti-viral disinfectant is done at key points, including 11 border crossings with India that is battling its own outbreak of the virus.  Security forces are closely checking for any illegal poultry and egg imports from India.  Rapid Response Teams (RRT), with 11 trained members per team, have been put in place in all 64 districts.  Five trained RRT members in each of 471 sub-districts have personal protective equipment.  Antiviral drugs have been stored at district hospitals for the use of those who cull sick birds.  More than 225,000 volunteers from more than 4,400 unions had been trained to visit rural households and educate people on important health practices such as reporting dead or sick birds, safe disposal of solid poultry waste, safe disposal of dead birds, and proper hand washing.

In India, the Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries has announced Avian Influenza outbreaks in poultry in 9 districts: Birbhum, Dakshin Dinajpur, Murshidabad, Nadia, Bankura, Burdwan, Maldah, Coochbehar and Hooghly. The outbreak areas have been identified, the districts bordering the outbreak areas have been alerted, and active surveillance is ongoing; Rapid Response Teams with personal protective equipment are in the outbreak areas.  Culling operations are underway followed by necessary compensation efforts.  Reuters reported spraying roads and markets in Kolkata.

In Myanmar, the Livestock Breeding and Veterinary Department has confirmed a new outbreak of H5N1 on 27 December 2007 in Yankham village, 580 km northeast of Yangon. More than 1,000 chickens have been killed to contain the outbreak and so far no case of human infection has been reported.

Human cases of Avian Influenza have been reported from Indonesia and Myanmar.  WHO reported 124 laboratory-confirmed human cases of avian influenza in Indonesia, with 100 deaths since July 2005.  The latest case of human infection of H5N1 avian influenza in Indonesia was of an 8-year-old boy from Tangerang District, Banten Province who developed symptoms on 7 January 2008, was hospitalized on January 16, and died in an AI referral hospital on January 18.  The first case of human infection in Myanmar was of a 7-year-old girl from Shan State, announced on 14 December 2007.

(3) Extreme cold kills more than 500 in Afghanistan
(based on reports from IRIN and Reuters)

More than 300 people have died and dozens of others have been injured by cold weather and heavy snow in several Afghan provinces over the past four weeks.  The main victims are children and elderly people as they are particularly vulnerable to winter diseases such as pneumonia and other respiratory infections.  Livestock deaths are reported as higher than 83,000, and represent a significant loss of the main sources of livelihood for families in rural areas.  The Afghanistan National Disasters Management Authority (ANDMA) said 25 out of 34 provinces were affected.  Herat Province in western Afghanistan was hit hardest with over 137 deaths and more than 41,000 livestock lost.  Thousands of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in several camps and settlements in Herat, Helmand and Kandahar provinces are feared to have been severely affected by the winter weather.  Both government and international aid organizations have conducted evacuation and relief operations.  Blocked roads, rugged terrain and insecurity have hindered access to remote areas.

(4) Lost islands of Indonesia?

Asian Surveying & Mapping magazine reported that Indonesia has lost 24 of its more than 17,500 islands due to natural disasters and environmental damage.  Citing Maritime Affairs and Fisheries minister Freddy Numberi, the report mentioned that four islands disappeared due to the December 2004 tsunami, and 20 other islands in Sumatra's Riau province and in the Seribu island group in Jakarta Bay had vanished due to exploitation and environmental damage.  To read more, please go to: http://www.asmmag.com/news/537.

(5) India releases national guidelines for flood management
(based on a report from The Times of India)

The Disaster Management Act of 2005 created the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), State Disaster Management Authorities and District Disaster Management Authorities at national, states and districts level respectively.  Under this mandate, the NDMA released the guidelines this January, containing both structural and non-structural mitigation measures.  Among the critical elements of the guidelines are: the preparation of flood risk maps; enactment and enforcement of flood plain zoning regulations, expansion and modernization of flood forecasting and warning services; the implementation of a system of inspection, maintenance and restoration of structural measures; establishing river basin organizations for effective inter- and intra-state coordination for flood management; introduction of flood insurance schemes; and the establishment of coordination mechanisms among central agencies and basin states for the operation of reservoirs to optimize flood moderation with other uses.  Other guidelines released by the NDMA have covered earthquake management, chemical (industrial) disasters, medical preparedness and mass casualty management, and for the preparation of State disaster management plans.

B. Calls for Submission

(6) Call for Papers: Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Management

The joint Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Management combines the programs offered by the 3rd International China Workshop on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM-CHINA) and the 4th International Symposium on Geo-Information for Disaster Management (Gi4DM). The language of the conference is English.  Papers are invited that deal with any aspect of the design, development, deployment, operation, or evaluation of information systems for crisis management (ISCRAM track) and/or the collection, management, analysis, sharing and visualization of geo-information for disaster management (Gi4DM track).  Prospective authors must submit an abstract of their paper by February 15, 2008, and indicate whether they submit to the ISCRAM track (for papers focusing on Information Systems) or to the Gi4DM track (for papers focusing on Geo-Information).  Upon acceptance, authors will be invited to submit their full paper by April 15, 2008.  All abstracts and papers will be evaluated and selected by the International Scientific Committee.  Abstracts and full papers must use the Conference Template which is available from http://www.iscram.org (ISCRAM-CHINA2008 menu).  Submissions by e-mail only to the following address: iscramchina@hrbeu.edu.cn.   For more information, please go to: http://www.iscram.org/ and http://www.conference-heu.com/.

(7) Call for Papers: Annual Hazards and Disasters Student Paper Competition

The Natural Hazards Center is pleased to announce its fifth annual Hazards and Disasters Student Paper Competition.  Papers may present current research, literature reviews, theoretical arguments, or case studies.  Subject matter may include, but is not limited to, floods/floodplain management, Hurricane Katrina, earthquakes, climate change, warning systems, hazard mitigation, emergency management, vulnerability, or other topics relevant to the social/behavioral aspects of hazards and disasters.  Papers will be judged on their originality, organization, and demonstrated knowledge of the topic.  One undergraduate and one graduate winner each will receive $100; mention in the Natural Hazards Observer; publication on the Natural Hazards Center Web site; and an invitation to the Annual Hazards Workshop in Boulder, Colorado, registration fees included.  The deadline for submission is March 14, 2008.  Additional information is available at: http://www.colorado.edu/hazards/awards/paper-competition.html.

C. Conferences and Courses

(8) National Conference on Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction in Local Governance – Makati City, Philippines: 4-6 March 2008

Organizer: Department of the Interior and Local Government, Government of the Philippines.  The Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) is convening the First National Conference on Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction in Local Governance.  The conference will bring together officials from national, regional and local authorities, and disaster management practitioners to share their best practices, experiences, and initiatives to reduce vulnerabilities to natural disasters and mitigate potential disaster damage and losses on the local level.  Conference topics include: opportunities provided by risk financing and risk transfer; the role of the private sector in DRR; and mainstreaming DRR in planning and budgeting in different administrative levels.  For more information, please contact Dr. Marqueza L. Reyes, UP Department of Geography, University of the Philippines, ncdrr_2007@yahoo.com, and Ms. Priscella Mejillano, Bureau of Local Government Development, DILG, ncdrr_dilg2008@yahoo.com.

(9) 37th Regional Training Course on Disaster Management – Bangkok, Thailand: March 17 – April 4, 2008

Organizer: Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC).  This ADPC flagship course aims to facilitate effective strategies and systems for disaster prevention, mitigation, response and recovery, applying risk management processes in order to identify, assess and deal with disaster risk assessment, utilizing an emergency coordination center to manage disaster events and assess key implementation issues and requirements in disaster management.  To download the course brochure, please go to: download here.

(10) Regional Course on on Climate Risk Management: Science, Institutions, and Society – Bangkok, Thailand: April 21 to May 2, 2008

Organizer: Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC).  The course provides an opportunity to enhance the capabilities of professionals to manage risks associated with climate variability, change, and extremes.  For more information on this course, please go to: download here

(11) 2nd Regional Course on Use of GIS & RS in Disaster Risk Management – Bangkok, Thailand: 5 to 16 May, 2008

Organizer: Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC).  The course provides an opportunity to enhance the capabilities of executive managers and technical staff involved in disaster risk management by providing them with understanding on the use of spatial information in disaster risk management.  The course is co-organized with the International Institute for Geo-information Science and Earth Observations.  For more information please go to: http://www.adpc.net/v2007/Downloads/2008/Jan/Leaflet%20GRSDRM2_final.pdf.

(12) Workshop on the Applications of Global Navigation Satellite Systems – Medellin, Colombia: 23 – 27 June 2008

Organizer: United Nations, Colombia and the United States of America.  The programme of the Workshop will include, but not be limited to, the following topics: (a) use of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) technology in precision agriculture, climate change, landscape epidemiology, e-learning; (b) regional/national experiences and case studies on GNSS applications; (c) sharing experience of implementing GNSS applications projects in the region, particularly on issues, concerns and lessons learned during the implementation; (d) exploring the possibility of setting up national and regional coordinating mechanisms; (e) review the status of currently existing plans and projects on GNSS; (f) group discussion sessions to exchange views and to identify priority areas for pilot projects to be launched.  The workshop is hosted by and co-organized with the Vice Presidency of the Republic of Colombia, and the Colombian Commission on Space (CCE).  For more information please contact Ms. Sharafat Gadimova, United Nations Office for Outer Space: sharafat.gadimova@unvienna.org.

D. Useful Resources

(13) Sound Waves Can Trigger Earthquake Aftershocks?

Science Daily reported that Paul Johnson and colleagues at Los Alamos have shown that seismic waves – the sounds radiated from earthquakes – can induce earthquake aftershocks, often long after a quake has subsided.  Using a device that simulates earthquakes in a laboratory setting, their research demonstrated how wave energy can be stored in certain types of granular materials, like the type found along certain fault lines across the globe.  They also found that this stored energy can suddenly be released as an earthquake when hit by relatively small seismic waves far beyond the traditional "aftershock zone" of a main quake.  A surprising result of the research was that the release of energy can occur minutes, hours, or even days after the sound waves pass; no explanation has yet been discovered.  To read more about this, please go to the original article: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/01/080103124649.htm.

(14) World Disasters Report 2007: Focus on Discrimination, IFRC, 2007

The Report produced by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies looks at discrimination in disasters based on gender, ethnicity, age, and disability.  It asks key questions such as: How does discrimination affect the vulnerable in an emergency? How can we spot it?

What can we do about it?  The report tries to find policy gaps in the protection of the rights of vulnerable people.  To download the document, please go to: http://www.ifrc.org/Docs/pubs/disasters/wdr2007/WDR2007-English.pdf.

(15) Country Focus 5: Pakistan

This section is a focus on online resources on the countries under the GUGSA project or PROMISE program, both funded by USAID.  The countries that will be featured are (in order): Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam.  Here is a list of online resources on Pakistan:

  • “Report on Post Earthquake Rapid Assessment Northern Pakistan – 8 October 2005” (2005) by ADPC: Download >

  • Disaster Preparedness for Natural Hazards: Current Status in Pakistan (2007) by ICIMOD: Download >

  • ISDR Profile of Pakistan: View >

  • IRIN’s Profile of Pakistan: View >   

  • AlertNet’s profile of Pakistan: View >

  • ADB Portal on Pakistan: View >

 

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